Contributions by Muslims to Modern Civilization
Apart from many Great contributions some of which have been listed below, the one I find very important personally is the preservation of knowledge of Greek, Indian and Persian Science and Arts. We know of many things from these three ancient civilizations only because of Arab Scientists and Historians. (Special Mention of Ibn Batuta).
Another personal favorite is Human Rights. Yes, I know many will be surprised by this and roll their eyes, but Islam is the only religion I know of which “Specifically States” that all humans are equal and the only thing that makes anyone great in the sight of God is good deeds.
All Muslim contribution was possible only because one of Islam’s commandments, That is to go out into the world and learn as much as possible to recognize the works of God and once you have learned share it with others.
The great 10th-century Muslim surgeon Qasim al Zahrawi, described as the father of surgery, invented many surgical tools still used in modern medicine, including the scalpel, the surgical needle and surgical scissors. He also discovered catgut as a reliable material to administer internal stitches as it can be absorbed by the body, preventing the need for a second surgery to remove them.
The study of algebra flourished during the Islamic Golden Age under the scholarship of mathematician al-Khwarizmi. The word algebra is derived from ‘al-jabr’, an operation he used to solve quadratic equations. The introduction of algebra as a unifying theory significantly broadened the concept of mathematics and its development path.
In the 11th century, the scientist Ibn Haytham overturned ancient ideas of how our eyes see. While some said light rays came out of the eyes, others thought something entered the eyes to represent an object. Through systematic reason and experiment, Ibn Haytham discovered that light is not emitted from the eye itself, but in fact is reflected off an object and enters the eye.
Coffee beans were native to Ethiopia, but the Muslim Arabs developed the beverage we know as coffee in the 15th century in Yemen when they traded with the Ethiopians. They ground and roasted the beans, then boiled them in water. Religious men (Sufis) began to drink coffee to refrain from sleeping so that they could spend the night in prayer.
The Mughals were among the first to use metal rockets in battle.
Jamshid al-Kashi made significant original contributions to trigonometry, such as the Law of Cosines, which were later independently developed by modern mathematicians in the 19th century.
Refer to answers given here for more information:
Carbonated drinks started in the Arab world.
The Astrolabe for measuring the distance between stars was introduced by Muslims.
Ibn Hayyan, often referred to as the founder of modern chemistry is credited for the invention of the still (for distillation).
Although paper was a Chinese invention, it was the Muslims who refined it, came up with the idea of writing on it and binding rectangular peaces of it together to form a book.
First Candy Factory in Muslim Cypress. Sugar = Qand = Candy
Navigational tools like the compass introduced by Arab travelers.
Use of Anesthesia in surgery.
Cauterizing of wounds.
Al Razi diagnosed small pox and measles. He promoted balanced diet for healthy living and psychotherapy for patients as far back as 895 AD.
Ibn Sina’s contribution in the fields of medical science and philosophy became the base of Renaissance in Europe.
Ibn Khaldun – Father of modern Sociology.
Immense contributions to horticulture when Arab Scientists tried to grow fruits found in one part of the world in other parts. Brought many vegetables and fruits of Europe and Africa to Asia and vice versa.
Perfected many musical instruments and brought many musical instruments to India which have become part of Indian culture.
Other contributions: in the fields of Architecture, Glass Making, Fabrics, Carpets, Mosaic, and Calligraphy.